Driving Guide to Historic
Sites: Island Park, Idaho
By Donald B. Lindsey, Ph.D.
Island Park and Its People
Island Park is a unique historical and
geological area in north Fremont County, Idaho. The area covers a wide strip
from what is locally known as the Ashton Hill to the Montana border, in a
shallow high altitude basin formed by an ancient caldera.
Within the area is a city by the name of Island
Park that was incorporated in 1947 because Idaho's liquor laws required a city
for the purpose of regulation. The city lines were drawn around existing lodges
along the old Highway 20. This gives the city a peculiar configuration, and the
distinction of having "the longest Main Street in America."
"Main Street," or U. S. Hwy 20 in Island Park,
is 33 miles long from Last Chance to Valley View. Its width, however, is only an
average of 500 feet from the center line of the old highway, where most
businesses serving spirits exist, plus extensions to the west that reach Staley
Springs and to the east that reach Big Springs.
Island Park was named for its many natural
clearings, some bounded by water, that appear in this otherwise heavily timbered
area. These openings in the forest were likened to islands where travelers could
stop and "park" to rest or otherwise transact their business. The first humans
to do this were members of various Native American tribes: the Blackfeet, the
Bannock, the Crow, the Flatheads, and bands of the Shoshone Tribe, including the
Next came the first trappers and traders,
followed by explorers, guides, and scouts beginning with the summer of 1810. The
first of these was Major Andrew Henry, for whom Henry's Lake is named, and the
North Fork of the Snake River that is often referred to as Henry's Fork of the
Snake. The most famous of these early visitors include Jim Bridger, George Rea,
Kit Carson, Richard "Beaver Dick" Leigh and Richard W. "Dick" Rock (Rocky
Mountain Dick). Of these, Dick Rock and George Rea settled in the area to ranch,
hunt, and serve as guides.
Other settlers arrived during the late 1860s,
homesteaded, and began to build ranches and engage in other business. Such
enterprises included mining, cutting timber, road building, and fish harvesting.
Still other businesses were geared to accommodating sportsmen and travelers
headed for Yellowstone National Park. Island Park has thus served as an
important gateway to Yellowstone since 1872, and significantly helped in opening
the park's west entrance.
Today, Island Park still serves as a gateway to
Yellowstone and many of its people work in the tourism industry. In its own
right, Island Park is a prime recreation area for those who love to camp, hike,
fish, hunt, float rivers, view wildlife, snowmobile, cross country ski or simply
view majestic scenery. Island Park is also increasingly becoming a choice summer
home area and a retirement area for those who don't mind more than a little
Geologically, about 500,000 years ago much of
what now forms the Island Park area was a large volcano that exploded with
extraordinary force. Geologists tell us that fallout from that event has been
found as far away as Kansas.
In the aftermath of that explosion, Island Park
was left with a world class U-shaped volcanic caldera formation. A caldera is a
volcanic crater that has a diameter several times that of the vent and is formed
by the collapse of the central portion of the volcano. The Island Park caldera
measures 18 miles in width and is 23 miles long. Since that ancient time the
crater has largely been filled in by lava flows from the east in Yellowstone
National Park. In addition, other elements of nature helped set the stage for
the historical developments of Island Park by humans.
About The Driving Tour
It takes two days or more
Once you reach the first Island Park site noted
in this guide, the remainder of the tour covers 122 miles. This includes some
backtracking on side trips off U. S. Highway 20. Visiting all the places listed
here at a leisurely pace will take the better part of two days. This time will
be extended if you stop to hike, bicycle, picnic, fish, or explore any of the
side trips mentioned.
A full third day could be added if you drive the
81-mile Fort Henry Historic Byway from Elk Creek Crossroads on U.S. Hwy. 20. A
section of this byway is also a segment of the National Nez Perce Trail.
If your time or interest is limited, you may
want to take in only three major sites. These would be visiting the Railroad
Ranch at Harriman State Park; seeing the restored Big Falls Inn at the Mesa
Falls area; and touring the Johnny Sack Cabin at Big Springs. This shortened
tour can be easily accomplished in a day.
Off season considerations
During the late fall and early spring months
some of the historic sites in Island Park are not accessible by car or truck due
to snowy or muddy road conditions. During the snow months, all sites off U. S.
Highway 20 can be easily reached by snowmobile on groomed trails except for the
trip to Bishop Mountain. That trail is not groomed. In these instances you are
advised to check in person or call about road, trail and weather conditions at
the U.S. Forest Service office near Pond's Lodge in Island Park before taking
these tours. The number is (208) 558-7301.
Be prepared for sudden thunderstorms accompanied
by lightning, hail, and strong winds during the summer season. Falling trees
under these conditions are not unusual. Also, be alert for deer, elk, or moose
on or near the highways, especially during the early morning hours and evenings.
Many a driver has bagged one of these large critters out of season via a road
collision. Quite often such mishaps leave car owners hunting for a new vehicle.
Beginning the tour
Driving north from Ashton, Idaho's Visitor's
Center on U. S. Hwy. 20, you soon begin climbing what is locally known as the
"Ashton Hill," and enter the Caribou-Targhee National Forest. After topping the
hill, a total of 7.7 miles from Ashton, you reach a turnout marked by a road
sign labeled "Caldera Lookout." It reveals some interesting information about
the caldera's formation. The spot affords a close look of the caldera.
7.2 miles from this location is a second caldera
lookout sign.. "Volcanic Calderas." This sign is located at the turnoff to reach
a historical site on Bishop Mountain on North Antelope Flats Road. Bishop
Mountain also forms a portion of the west rim of the volcano 12.6 miles from the
highway. This is a reasonably well-maintained dirt road that can be traveled at
moderate speeds. Motor homes, however, are not recommended for this side trip.
Atop Bishop Mountain is a 72-foot high fire
lookout tower that is still used on occasion. The structure was built in 1936 by
the U. S. Forest Service with the aid of the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
that was active during the depression years. A log cabin, garage, and a frame
pit toilet sit nearby the tower. The tower is unique in that it was constructed
of metal rather than logs. It is the only remaining fire tower of nine that once
existed in the Targhee National Forest, and it is listed on the National
Register of Historic Places. Climbing up into the tower is not permitted.
4 tenths of a mile north of the Bishop Mountain
turnoff is another turnout for viewing Swan Lake. A small road sign telling
something of this small shallow lake marks this spot. Throughout the warm
months, this lake is typically home to nesting trumpeter swans that are easily
seen and photographed. Historically, Swan Lake was part of an old ranch, but has
since become Forest Service property.
1 mile north of Swan Lake is another turnout
with a road sign that marks the boundaries of Harriman State Park, site of the
historic Railroad Ranch. Once known as the Island Park Land and Cattle Company,
American railroad magnate E. H. Harriman purchased the ranch in 1908. A
premature death kept him from ever visiting the property. Thus it was left to
his son, Averill Harriman, of diplomatic fame and former governor of New York
State, to become the first Harriman to visit the ranch the following year.
The property has an interesting history as a
working ranch. In addition, it once served as a hunting and fishing retreat for
wealthy easterners, mostly railroad executives. Currently on the grounds are two
large buildings in the ranch complex that are available for large group rental
(15-40 people). The cookhouse is available for meal preparation and dining. The
Island Park Land and Cattle Company Home Ranch remains standing and well
preserved. The ranch grounds are open to the public and interpretive tours of
the grounds and buildings are scheduled in the summer and fall. Entrance to the
ranch is just north of the turnout marked by the state park sign.
1.1 miles north of the entrance to Harriman
State Park you reach the junction for the Mesa Falls Scenic Byway that runs
eastward 14 miles to the Mesa Falls Recreation Area that is jointly managed by
the Idaho Department of Parks and Recreation (IDPR) and the Caribou-Targhee
National Forest. The area includes Upper Mesa Falls, Lower Mesa Falls, the Big
Falls Inn Visitors Center, and walking paths. Admission is charged to the area.
The fee includes admission to Harriman State Park. Idaho Parks and Recreation
passes and Harriman State Park passes are accepted here.
The late Victorian style Big Falls Inn opened as
an interpretive center in 2001. It was built in 1909, but fell into disuse and
disrepair from the 1940s until the late 1990s, when the IDPR and the Forest
Service partnered to restore it and make it the Big Falls Inn Visitor Center.
Visit the Center to see exhibits on the geology of the falls and canyon, the
history of the lodge, the river ecosystem, plants and animals of the area, the
forest ecosystem, cultural history of the area from prehistoric times to
present, and maps of other parks and points of interest in the area.
There are several hiking trails in the area.
There is an improved hiking trail from Lower Mesa Falls to Bear Gulch. A moose
trail follows the canyon upstream from the upper falls. The old road that runs
behind the parking lot is 1 mile out to an overlook of the lower falls and
access to fishing. The bicycle trail that is the old railroad bed begins at Warm
River Campground and goes clear to Yellowstone. It is a combined ATV/bicycle
trail from Bear Gulch north.
Warm River Springs is only 5 miles away from
Upper Mesa Falls on the 154 Rd. via the 150 Rd. This branch of the Warm River
boils up out of the ground by the old fish hatchery. The hatchery residence is
now a Forest Service rental cabin. This is a great place to see moose.
Fishing access to Henry's Fork is provided by
Forest Roads 313, 610, 760, 351, 151, & the newly rebuilt Wood Rd. #4. Sheep
Falls is upstream from Mesa Falls and can be accessed by either 151 from the
east side of the river or 162 from the west side of the river. The 314 road
takes off from the Mesa Falls Scenic Byway at Osborne Springs and winds back to
the river, as does the Hatchery Ford Road (351). Hatchery Ford is an unimproved
dirt road, but it does access the bottom of the river canyon.
2.4 miles north of the Mesa Falls Byway turnoff
places you in a business and residential area now called Last Chance. This area
marks the southernmost boundary for the city of Island Park. Many years ago this
area was called Ripleys where stagecoaches crossed the river. With the demise of
the stagecoach and advent of the horseless carriage, this area got its new name
because it was the last chance for travelers to buy gas before reaching Ashton.
Fuel was served up at a small two-pump service station, and drivers had their
choice of either ethyl or regular gasoline.
When was the last time you heard someone say, "fill'er
up with ethyl?" The small log service station— more than 50 years old— remains
standing on the west side of the highway and is still in use, but for other
4.9 miles north of this historical site you
cross the Buffalo River and reach Pond's Lodge on the west side of the highway.
Charles Pond rebuilt this historic log structure in 1936 after a fire destroyed
the original facilities in 1935.
Surrounding the lodge are small rustic cabins
that have long-accommodated tourists, sportsmen and lumbermen. Currently, this
lodge features a restaurant, lounge, store, and a the Teton Room that is also
used for myriad community activities. The lodge has on display a series of
historic comedic calendar art scenes (circa the 1940s). The scenes depict the
same befuddled fisherman who is always having trouble landing his catch.
Heading north from Pond's Lodge 7 tenths of a
mile, you reach Phillips Loop, which is 1.4 miles long and takes you back to U.
S. Hwy. 20. On this loop are two historic sites. One is Phillips Lodge built in
1938. At first, the business was named the Lodgepole Inn, and later the name was
changed to Happy Joe's. Now Phillips Lodge is part of a luxury cabin resort
called The Pines at Island Park. The owners have named the restaurant portion of
the lodge the Lodgepole Grill.
Happy Joe's was a favorite watering hole and
recreation spot for construction workers on the Island Park Dam. After Harry and
Estelle Phillips purchased the lodge in 1940, it was given its present name.
Like a number of old lodges in this area, it too burned to the ground, but this
log structure was rebuilt in 1948-49.
Directly across the road from Phillips Lodge is
the Elk Creek Ranch. This historic guest ranch was earlier known as the Uden
Ranch. The property and its facilities have passed through several hands over
the years. In the early days the ranch ran cattle and served as a stagecoach
stop for tourists traveling to Yellowstone National Park. The ranch's rustic
facilities overlook small, but pretty Elk Creek Lake that offers guests some
Returning to U. S. Hwy. 20 by completing the
north side of Phillips Loop, you are at Elk Creek Station and the Elk Creek
Crossroads— the intersection of U. S. Hwy 20 and the Kilgore-Yale Road (Fremont
Here you have two options. 1. You can drive to
Eagle Ridge Ranch and after visiting the ranch, turn back to U. S. Hwy 20 and
proceed with the Island Park area tour. 2. You can drive the Fort Henry Historic
Byway that was dedicated in 2002.
Option 1. Head west on Fremont County Road A2
for 6 miles to Eagle Ridge Ranch, the last 2 miles of which is a dirt road that
is usually in good condition. At about the 4-mile mark, road A2 curves off to
the right, but you should continue straight ahead onto the dirt road where you
can see a sign for the ranch. Again continue straight ahead.
The 2,000-acre Eagle Ridge Ranch is both a guest
ranch and a working cattle ranch and is open to the public. It was once part of
the famous Trude Ranch that was host to such prominent figures as Presidents
Hoover and Eisenhower. In addition, many movie stars have stayed there and
Wallace Beery stayed often.
The Eagle Ridge Ranch lies on part of the Nez
Perce Indian Trail used during their flight from Army troops who were trying to
remove them to an unwanted reservation. Dispersed among the newer structures
here are several historic buildings. These include a barn, some sleeping
quarters and other small outbuildings. Backtrack to U. S. Hwy 20 and skip
reading about Option 2.
Option 2. Fort Henry Historic Byway. The
"official" start of the 81-mile Fort Henry Historic Byway is at the Fort Henry
Monument on the Henry's Fork of the Snake River south of Parker, Idaho. For the
Island Park option, the byway "begins" at Elk Creek Crossroads when you drive
onto the Kilgore-Yale Road (County Road A2). Follow this through the Shotgun
area and into Clark County (approximately 10 miles), past the Camas Meadows to
the to the Red Road. Take the Red Road south, past the St. Anthony Sand Dunes to
the Fort Henry Monument. From here, you would head back to Island Park by
traveling north on U. S. Hwy. 20 though Ashton. Or, backtrack to Elk Creek
Crossroads. Another option is to take the Mesa Falls Scenic Byway from west of
Ashton back to U. S. Hwy. 20 in Island Park. The byway is marked with colorful
three-sided signs. Brochures on this and other Idaho scenic and historic byways
are available at area visitor centers and retail stores.
The Kilgore-Yale Road and Red Rock Road segments
of the Fort Henry Historic Byway are also a segment of the National Nez Perce
Trail. This section commemorates the flight of the Nez Perce through Leadore,
Idaho and Island Park, Idaho to West Yellowstone, Montana, in August 1877. Auto
Tour brochures interpreting this section of the flight are available at area
visitor centers and National Forest offices.
Back on U. S Hwy 20 at Elk Creek Crossroads from
option 1 or if you backtracked from Option 2, head north 3.4 miles to the Mack's
Inn area. This family resort area is laid out along the south bank of Henry's
Fork of the Snake River on both sides of U. S. Hwy. 20. Development began
shortly after 1916, when the road through the area was improved to allow
relatively safe and comfortable automobile travel.
William H. "Doc" Mack began development of
Mack's Inn after vacating another facility catering to hunters, tourists, and
anglers. The centerpiece of his development was a large lodge built of logs that
gave the area its name — Mack's Inn. Unfortunately, in 1988 this remarkable
building also burned to the ground, the same year of the great Yellowstone
fires. What remains are a number of the historic log cabins on the east side of
the highway and a two story motel constructed of logs seen on the west side of
the highway All of these are still in use.
Upon entering Mack's Inn from the south, one of
the first road signs you'll see is one directing attention to Big Springs 4
miles east of the highway on Big Springs Road. This historic place has two
notable features that are a must-see if you love wilderness beauty and an
extraordinary historical structure.
First, however, 1 tenth of a mile after turning
onto Big Springs Road is the Little Chapel In The Pines. Doc Mack built this
historic log structure in the 1940s. He generously built the chapel when he
learned that people wanted more than just a place to get away from it all. They
also wanted to worship on Sundays. The chapel is a nonsectarian enterprise that
is committed to providing interfaith services and weddings. It has served
Protestants, Catholics, and Mormons over the years.
After leaving the Little Chapel in the Pines and
continuing toward Big Springs, you see a sign about 1 mile before reaching Big
Springs. The sign directs you to turn left toward a beautiful spot and another
interesting historic structure. This spot is the entrance to America's first
National Water Trail, designated in 1981. The water trail actually begins at Big
Springs, but human intrusion is not allowed until one reaches this point. Here,
people are allowed to put in float craft and paddle or drift to the end of the
waterway at Mack's Inn.
At this site stands a historic railroad trestle
that crosses over the river. It was constructed during the early 1900s when the
railroad pushed through Island Park to Yellowstone. Except for the railroad bed,
the trestle represents the last major remains of its existence. During winter,
crossing this trestle on a snow machine presents an interesting challenge for
those who do not approach it with considerable sobriety. The site is 3 tenths of
a mile off the highway over a dirt road that is usually passable for most
vehicles. There is also a sizeable parking lot and turnaround here.
Upon leaving this site turn left and continue
the last mile to Big Springs. Once there you first see the large clear natural
springs that serve as a main headwaters for the Henry's Fork (first named the
North Fork) of the Snake River. The spring is notable for the vast quantity of
water that flows from it and extra large trout that spawn in this area and are
easily seen in the clear waters. It is also a family treat to feed these fish
and watch them rise to take the food available near the bridge that crosses over
The second attraction is Johnny Sack's carefully
handcrafted cabin and furnishings. Interestingly, Johnny was not a big man, and
stood less than five feet tall, so he built the cabin and furnishings to fit his
height. Alongside the cabin stands a unique, working water wheel. All are
located on the east side of the springs. During the summer months the cabin is
open to the public and is served by the Johnny Sack Cabin Preservation
Returning the 4 miles to U. S. Hwy. 20 and
heading north from Mack's Inn 1.7 miles, you reach North Big Springs Loop and
come in sight of historic Island Park Lodge. It stands on the east side of the
In 1947, business partners, a Mr. Blackington
and Pete Piersanti constructed this resort. Piersanti managed the log structure
until 1951. Originally, the partners started with a small restaurant and then
added living quarters, a saloon and for better or worse, a gambling hall.
However, 1951 saw the end of legalized gambling in Idaho. With that, Piersanti
sold his share of Island Park Lodge to Blackington. Piersanti then moved to
Nevada and helped develop the hotel and casino called Cactus Pete's in Jackpot,
Nevada. Since then, the lodge has passed through several hands. Today it still
features a restaurant and saloon much as in the old days. As for gambling, well,
regulars have to scare up their own private bets on NFL games or the World
6.3 miles north of Island Park Lodge is another
turnout. Here a historical road sign stands celebrating the passage through
Island Park of Jesuit Catholic Priest, Father Pierre-Jean DeSmet along with 1600
friendly and "peace loving" Flathead Indians. For two days they camped near the
shores of Henry's Lake and Father DeSmet held Idaho's first Catholic mass.
DeSmet recorded in his diaries that he climbed an estimated 5,000 feet up a
nearby mountain as far as he could go and carved a Latin inscription on a rock,
signed and dated it July 23, 1840 DeSmet. The inscription read: "Sanctus
Ignatius Patronus Montium Die Julii 23, 1840." Despite searches the rock has yet
to be discovered and perhaps never will, especially if the rock was limestone
and would not weather the elements. However, the search has not been abandoned
by all - stay tuned.
1.5 miles north of the DeSmet marker you reach
U. S. Hwy. 20's junction with Highway 87 that leads west to Dillon, Montana.
Turning left you pass by the north shore of Henry's Lake for 1.2 miles and
arrive at Targhee Cemetery on the north side of the road overlooking Henry's
Lake. The cemetery has served as the final resting place for many early settlers
in the Island Park area. The cemetery is on the land known as the Diamond D
Salisbury Ranch. The oldest grave marker carries a date of 1899.
Traveling 3.3 miles west from the cemetery you
arrive at the entrance to the Wild Rose Ranch situated on the lake's north
shore. Development on this property began about 1898 and has continued over the
years. The ranch has long served as a fishing resort and lodge that has gained a
national reputation for its hospitality and the excellent trout fishing Henry's
Lake offers. Several well preserved historic buildings dating back to the turn
of the century can be viewed close up on this property. Wild Rose also served as
a stage stop before 1909 when stagecoach services gave way to railroad travel.
Louis L'Amour wrote one of his famous Western adventure books in one of the
5 tenths of a mile west of the entrance to Wild
Rose Ranch you arrive at a T intersection of Highway 87 and Staley Springs Road.
At this intersection is a historical road marker calling attention to this area
as the site of the Sawtell Ranch. Gilman Sawtell was Island Park's first white
settler. Island Park's most prominent landmark, Mount Sawtelle, was named after
him. Or is it just plain Sawtell with no "e" at the end of the name? There is
some confusion about the spelling of his name as you look at various signs
around the area. The cause lies in one of General Howard's written reports to
Washington, D. C. describing the area and its people. He took some literary
license and added a French flavor to Sawtell's name. Hence the confusion of
From this intersection, 1.9 miles south on
Staley Springs Road you reach Staley Springs Lodge. The springs located at this
long time fishing resort help feed Henry's Lake. Staley Springs was once a part
of Sawtell's ranch, but in 1896 Ed Staley bought the ranch and the springs area
continues to bear his name. Before Staley bought this property, the springs area
was known as Sawtell's Fish Farm. Since those days the property has passed
through many hands. At this site are a number of historical log cabins that are
still in use and a lodge that was rebuilt in the 1940s. The original lodge like
others in Island Park burned down during the 1920s. Also here is a very
important part of Island Park history- a memorial the people who have worked
hard to preserve the lake's fishery over the years.
Upon backtracking to Highway 87's junction with
Highway 20 and heading north again for 2 tenths of a mile, you come to another
of Island Park's historic lodges, Sunset Lodge. Built in the 1940s, it remains
much as it is now seen. At one time, operations were expanded to include a small
sawmill that no longer exists. Over the years, this lodge has passed through
many owners. After leaving Sunset Lodge still heading north, you leave Island
In 4 miles on the right there is a pull off for
those wishing to stop and picnic at Howard Springs, a Caribou-Targhee National
Forest site named after General Howard, who pursued the Nez Perce Indians on
their flight to avoid being placed on a reservation. The spring has delicious
water and is used as a drinking water source by many area residents. There are
picnic tables and handicapped accessible restrooms at this site.
From here, you only have to travel 8.3 miles
further to reach West Yellowstone, Montana and the entrance to Yellowstone
National Park. It is our hope that Island Park has served as an interesting
historic gateway to the incomparable historic Yellowstone.
Feldsien, Pat, "Island Park Almanac." The Island
Park Bugle, Vol. 2 No. 9, 1990.
Green, Dean H., History of Island Park: A
Pictorial and Written History from before 1890 to Idaho's Centennial Year.
Island Park – Gateway Publishing Co. Ashton, ID, 1990.
Jacobs' Island Park Ranch, "Ranch History,"
McBroom, Mary (ed.), "Henry's Lake at the Turn
of the Century." Island Park Historical Society Special Report, May 7, 1992,
Yellowstone Gateway Post.
Summer Guide 2002: Yellowstone's Caldera
Country. May 2002, Island Park News.
Thompson, Ralph W. (ed.), Snake River Echoes: A
Quarterly of Idaho History, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1981.
Idaho State Historical Society. The Historical
Society is a state-funded organization dedicated to the preservation and study
of Idaho's history. Its facilities include the Historical Museum, Old Idaho
Penitentiary, Assay Office, and Historical Library and Archives in Boise. The
staff is available for consultation on any project involving Idaho's history,
records, buildings, sites or artifacts. For more information, contact Idaho
State Historical Society, 210 Main Street, Boise, Idaho 83702, (208) 334-3861.
City of Island Park: Thanks are due the city for
its management of the CLG Grant monies for the Island Park Historical Society
responsible for this publication.
Property and business owners. Special thanks are
extended to owners, property managers and employees who helped fill in some
historical gaps needed for completing this booklet.
Other acknowledgments: Thanks are also due to
Jane Daniels, Nancy Stratford, Doris Backstrom and Rosy Lindsey for their
helpful comments, suggestions. Julie Osborne conducted reconnaissance level
surveys from 1944 to 1997 recording sites in the Island Park area as part of an
ongoing project by the Island Park Historic Preservation Commission.
Bishop Mountain Lookout and the Island Park Land
and Cattle Company Home Ranch (Harriman State Park) are listed in the National
Register of Historic Places. Almost all other sites listed in this brochure are
eligible for listing.
Historic Driving Guide to Island Park Island
Park author Don Lindsey passed away November 20, 2003. He was a gifted writer,
an archivist for the Island Park Historical Society, and beloved member of the
community. The Island Park Historical Society and Island Park Media, Inc. are
proud to reprint this popular guide, which is an important part of Don's legacy
to the community. Donations in Don's memory may be made to the Island Park
Library, PO Box 74, Mack's Inn, ID 83433.